Based on the characteristics of the errors, the errors in the original DEM data can be classified into three categories: random error, systematic error, and gross error. The extra mass caused the vehicle to reenter over the South Pacific on the first partial orbit. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. We are taking, as examples, three studies [PRO 07, PLO 12, BAS 14], which use the same method on different types tropical forest. Aerial photogrammetry is always the primary method and the most valuable data source for topographical map generation and updating. Wikipedia, Electro-optical Earth observation satellite built by the Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology under an agreement with Satrec Initiative, a satellite manufacturing company in South Korea. RSI provided Earth-observation data and derived information products from RADARSAT-1 along with data from other commercially available Earth-observation satellites including Landsat 4, Landsat 5, Landsat 7, IKONOS, IRS, ERS, QuickBird, and ENVISAT. The spectra from GEOEYE are corrected by means of an empirical model that connects the spectra of the two images linearly, and calibrated on the common area. 3-19 with targets of different size and a detector LSF, i.e., a rectangle function the width of one detector. Coastal imperviousness has been mapped using LiDAR and aerial photography (Hodgson et al., 2003), as well as IKONOS multispectral data (Goetz et al., 2003; Sawaya et al., 2003). Fourteenth satellite in the Indian Remote Sensing satellite series has been built, launched and maintained by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). A wide variety of spatial rainfall-runoff models have evolved with the advent of widely available digital data such as land cover, digital elevation models (DEMs), soils, and gridded rainfall products from radar or interpolated meteorological-station precipitation. For instance, advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) with 1.1 km × 1.1 km pixels may be considered a coarse-resolution sensor; Landsat’s Thematic Mapper (TM) with 30 m × 30 m pixels, medium-resolution; and the IKONOS sensor with 4 m×4 m pixels, fine spatial resolution (Table 1). Social scientists interested in detecting individual buildings in an urban setting would need to select a sensor with spatial resolution similar to IKONOS or QuickBird data; those wanting to determine urban versus rural land cover would likely need a coarser sensor, such as Landsat-TM. Axis 2, on the other hand, relates to the degree of openness of the tree cover ([PLO 12], Figure 1 of this study). Standard Imagery. J. Acker, ... M. Manore, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014. Acquired in the 2013 purchase of GeoEye. Designed and developed by Satrec Initiative, with participation from EIAST engineers. In fact we already sell our printing media worldwide. International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters', Geographic information systems in geospatial intelligence. IKONOS data have been applied by NOAA to study coral reef health, to study crop diseases in the California wine country, to allow home buyers to see closeups of their potential new neigborhood, to plan city growth in Mexico, and even to create three-dimensional maps used for the … The next Athena II launch took place from SLC-6 at Vandenberg on 27 April 1999, with the Ikonos satellite for Space Imaging. Figure 6.7 shows that the Davidov glacier, under the pressure from anthropogenic deposits, moved sideways in a narrower space. The classification of land use from this series of images has helped highlight a rapid advance of Davidov and Lysii glaciers, due to the overload of tailings and sterile deposits on or besides the glaciers. However, filtering does not work in all cases. DRASTIC has been ported to GIS to build an index value for the potential of groundwater pollution from surface contamination. Under the three-dimensional visual environment, gross errors can be detected by human–computer interaction. Therefore, a second- or third-order polynomial is usually employed for real applications.