harvester ant size

The nest architecture of the Florida harvester ant, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Evidence for division of labor in the social caterpillar, Allometric scaling of metabolism, growth, and activity in whole colonies of the seed-harvester ant.

"Recruitment limitation and population density in the harvester ant, 10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[1433:RLAPDI]2.0.CO;2, Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. Ant Community Composition Across a Gradient of Disturbed Military Landscapes at Fort Benning, Georgia.

2010; Waters et al. Typically, large areas surrounding the mound are stripped of vegetation to prevent shading, as harvester ants usually remain within the nest during the hottest part of the day. Total activity is total task performance plus undifferentiated activity. Waste management: antennating, manipulating, or carrying refuse or dead worker. Actual advantages have rarely been verified, with most tests focusing on the rate or speed of individual performance, not the ultimate conversion of labor and resources into sexual offspring (Wilson 1980; Porter and Tschinkel 1985; Tschinkel 1993; Dukas and Visscher 1994; Chittka and Thomson 1997; Trumbo and Robinson 1997; Julian and Cahan 1999; Dornhaus 2008). The specific epithet "occidentalis", meaning "of the west", refers to the fact that it is characteristic of the interior of the Western United States; its mounds of gravel, surrounded by areas denuded of plant life, are a conspicuous feature of rangeland. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Atta species collect leaves and use them to grow fungi, which they eat. Second, eusocial colonies of all sizes are tightly integrated adaptive units that are, in many ways, functionally equivalent to unitary organisms and may thus experience analogous scaling effects (Wheeler 1911; Wilson 1985; Hölldobler and Wilson 1990, 2009; Seeley 1995, 1997). Division of labor is generally thought to enhance colony “efficiency” and thus fitness; benefits may include individual learning gains, reduction of task switching costs, and the evolution of specialized morphological or physiological “machinery” (Smith 1776/1976; Oster and Wilson 1978; Dornhaus 2008; Chittka and Muller 2009). Within each series of multiple tests, we controlled the false discovery rate using the Benjamini-Yekutieli method (adjusted α = 0.018), which is more powerful than Bonferroni corrections for familywise error rate and does not assume that tests are independent (Benjamini and Yekutieli 2001; Nakagawa 2004; Narum 2006). The pattern of microhabitat segregation was similar across three sites that encompassed a broad range of soil regimes. Soil properties only weakly affect subterranean ant distribution at small spatial scales. What is the function of encounter patterns in ant colonies? Ordinary least squares regression line is shown (Y = 0.23 + 2.9 × 10−4X; R2 = 0.37). Our study did not directly address those hypotheses, but it does provide relevant insights. It remains unclear, however, whether encounter rate and division of labor are functionally linked or respond separately to changes in colony size. There was no effect of queen number on DOLindiv-tasks (ANOVA: F2,18 = 0.53, P = 0.60). We examined how the organization of work scales with colony size within and among colonies of Pog.

How does colony growth influence communication in ants?
Colonies were housed in long-term maintenance nests between observation periods. Even if honeybees produced no honey, they would still be needed by farmers and gardeners. 2009). First, if the scaling relationship is driven by functional limitations or costs in small colonies, then division of labor might be expected to stabilize once a critical colony size is attained; yet, it appears to increase continuously throughout the range of colony sizes we observed (Figure 2). 2005; Jandt and Dornhaus 2009). Most laboratory studies, including our own, employ simplified nest designs that may reduce spatial segregation between workers and/or between tasks. We used paired t-tests to analyze within-colony differences (3 months vs. 1 year) in DOLindiv-tasks, proportional task allocation (proportions of colony observations during which workers were engaged in each of the 5 tasks, and their sum), and per capita activity (total task performance plus undifferentiated activity). If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Pogonomyrmex barbatus is a species of harvester ant from the genus Pogonomyrmex. A previous study that quantified locomotory activity in Pog. 2003; Bonner 2004). Robert A. Johnson. Caste and division of labor in leaf-cutter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dense heterarchies and mass communication as the basis of organization in ant colonies, Cooperative capture of large prey solves scaling challenge faced by spider societies, © The Author 2011. "Fifteen years of colony survivorship in the western harvester ant, Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Division of labor (DOLindiv-tasks) increased with colony size across 1-year-old colonies (linear regression: DOLindiv-tasks = 0.23 + 2.9 × 10−4 worker number; F1,19 = 11.25, P = 0.003, R2 = 0.37; Figure 2). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. For example, workers forage towards the ends of their lives. [11] Colony age and size are correlated, especially in young colonies.[22]. As tightly integrated units that vary greatly in size, eusocial insect colonies, in particular, are expected to exhibit social scaling relations. Although nest size was held constant, the aggregation of workers in small colonies caused worker density to increase more slowly than colony size; as a result, variation in encounter rate was not explained by variation in density alone.

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. 2009; Holbrook et al. [24][31] Certain shape characteristics improve male chances of mating success. Messor species collect, husk, and store seeds in their nests. Positive Interactions between Desert Granivores: Localized Facilitation of Harvester Ants by Kangaroo Rats. Because queens of that population are pleometrotic (found colonies cooperatively), laboratory colonies were initiated with 2 (in 2008) or 3 (in 2007) randomly chosen queens each. In view of the enormous size range of the predators, which include minute…

These studies identify four distinct tasks that an adult harvester-ant worker can perform outside the nest: foraging, patrolling, nest maintenance, and midden work (building and sorting…. [21], Different developmental stages of ants within a colony process different kinds of food; larvae ingest solids, while adults ingest liquids, including larval excretions (The Ants). We also used the still images to estimate local density, defined as the number of workers in the brood chamber divided by the number of 1-cm2 squares occupied (of 121), averaged across the 4 images per colony. [5][6] A queen can live up to 40 years, and many colonies survive for 20 years. 2010). Colony size versus per capita rate of encounter between nest mates in 1-year-old Pogonomyrmex californicus colonies. See ant. 2003; Thomas and Elgar 2003; Tschinkel 2006), and 2) per capita activity, which is predicted to decrease in larger colonies, in conjunction with the scaling of task demand and/or energy use (Jeanson et al. Workers of Lasius fuliginosus cluster together when global density is low, elevating their local rate of encounter (Gordon et al. 1993). rugosus harvester ants with genetic and environmental caste determination. Department of Plant Biology, Arizona State University, U.S.A. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Social scaling patterns, sometimes referred to as “group-size effects,” have been recognized in diverse taxa, for traits ranging from metabolic rate to vigilance (Elgar 1989; Barton 1996; Nakaya et al.

During playback, we randomly selected 20 focal workers per colony by imposing a grid on a still image and using a random number generator; 5 workers each were selected at 0, 15, 30, and 45 min to control for temporal variation in activity. We followed the same protocol as above, except we performed 60 scan samples per colony across 2 days (30 samples per day; at least 50 total observations per worker). [24] P. occidentalis populations are effectively small and inbred. californicus; individual workers in larger (and older) colonies specialize on narrower subsets of tasks. The other nest container opened, via a 0.6-cm-diameter entrance/exit, into a 55 × 36 cm foraging arena supplied with water (in a test tube plugged with cotton) and ad libitum Kentucky bluegrass seeds. Two features of social insects may increase their susceptibility to social scaling. "The structure of foraging activity in colonies of the harvester ant.
Harvester ant mounds are moderate to large in size depending on the species. Just as the size of a multicellular body is determined by the number and size of cells it contains, the size of a social group or colony can be defined by the number and size of individual members it comprises. Ant Distribution in Relation to Ground Water in North Florida Pine Flatwoods. They have a painful and venomous sting. “Callow” (lightly pigmented) workers were not marked or observed, to avoid potentially confounding effects of worker age structure on division of labor.

[11][22] Alates mate in hilltop leks [11][15][24] in swarms.

Colony needs or priorities may covary with colony size, causing size-related changes in the allocation of workers across tasks (Gordon 1996; Mailleux et al. Habitat segregation based on soil texture and body size in the seed‐harvester ants Pogonomyrmex rugosus and P. barbatus. "Sexual selection on body size and shape in the western harvester ant, "Scale of recruitment limitation in the western harvester ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)", 10.1603/0013-8746(2004)097[0738:SORLIT]2.0.CO;2, 10.1554/0014-3820(2001)055[0324:msstac]2.0.co;2, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pogonomyrmex_occidentalis&oldid=984922511, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 October 2020, at 22:10. californicus (i.e., larger colonies use less energy per gram of worker). Urban soil compaction reduces cicada diversity. Harvester ant, any of several different genera of ants (e.g., Messor, Atta, Pheidole, Pogonomyrmex) that gather seeds and leaves. Colony growth and the ontogeny of worker polymorphism in the fire ant, Sociometry and sociogenesis of colonies of the fire ant. These large (5– to 7-mm) ants prefer arid chaparral habitats and are native to the Southwestern United States. All rights reserved. californicus, which are founded independently (without workers) by one or more queens and grow to contain up to several thousand monomorphic workers at maturity (Johnson 2000). Effect of mating stage on water balance, cuticular hydrocarbons and metabolism in the desert harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus. Spatial constraints are implicated in many biological scaling phenomena (Brown and West 2000; Yip et al.

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